donderdag 3 oktober 2019

Scanned from the Original Glass Negatives Paris Portraits 1925–30 Berenice Abbott Photography

This is one in a series of books to be published by Steidl that will explore Berenice Abbott’s exceptional body of work. Abbott began her photographic career in 1925, taking portraits in Paris of some of the most celebrated artists and writers of the day including Marie Laurencin, Jean Cocteau, Peggy Guggenheim and James Joyce. Within a year her pictures were exhibited and acclaimed. Paris Portraits 1925–30 features the clear, honest results of Abbott’s earliest photographic endeavor, which illustrates the philosophy that shaped all of her subsequent work. For this landmark book, 115 portraits of 83 subjects have been scanned from the original glass negatives, which have been printed in full.

Photography can only represent the present. Once photographed, the subject becomes part of the past. Berenice Abbott

Co-published with Commerce Graphics, New York


Berenice Abbott
Berenice Abbott (July 17, 1898 – December 9, 1991),[2] née Bernice Alice Abbott, was an American photographer best known for her portraits of between-the-wars 20th century cultural figures, New York City photographs of architecture and urban design of the 1930s, and science interpretation in the 1940s to 1960s.

Abbott by Hank O'Neal in New York City, November 18, 1979

Bernice Abbott

July 17, 1898
Springfield, Ohio, US
Died December 9, 1991 (aged 93)
Monson, Maine, US
Resting place New Blanchard Cemetery, Blanchard, Maine, U.S.[1]
Nationality United States
Known for Photography
Early years
Abbott was born in Springfield, Ohio[3] and brought up there by her divorced mother, née Lillian Alice Bunn (m. Charles E. Abbott in Chillicothe OH, 1886).

She attended Ohio State University for two semesters, but left in early 1918 when her professor was dismissed because he was a German teaching an English class.[4] In Paris, she became an assistant to Man Ray, who wanted someone with no previous knowledge of photography.[5]

Trip to Europe, photography, and poetry
Her university studies included theater and sculpture.,[6] She spent two years studying sculpture in Paris and Berlin.[2] She studied at the Académie de la Grande Chaumiere in Paris and the Prussian Academy of Arts in Berlin.[7] During this time, she adopted the French spelling of her first name, "Berenice," at the suggestion of Djuna Barnes.[8] In addition to her work in the visual arts, Abbott published poetry in the experimental literary journal transition.[9] Abbott first became involved with photography in 1923, when Man Ray hired her as a darkroom assistant at his portrait studio in Montparnasse. Later, she wrote: "I took to photography like a duck to water. I never wanted to do anything else." Ray was impressed by her darkroom work and allowed her to use his studio to take her own photographs.[10] In 1921 her first major works was in an exhibition in the Parisian gallery Le Sacre du Printemps. After a short time studying photography in Berlin, she returned to Paris in 1927 and started a second studio, on the rue Servandoni.[11]

Photograph by Abbott of her friend Margarett Sargent taken in Paris in 1928

Abbott's subjects were people in the artistic and literary worlds, including French nationals (Jean Cocteau), expatriates (James Joyce), and others just passing through the city. According to Sylvia Beach, "To be 'done' by Man Ray or Berenice Abbott meant you rated as somebody".[12] Abbott's work was exhibited with that of Man Ray, André Kertész, and others in Paris, in the "Salon de l'Escalier"[13] (more formally, the Premier Salon Indépendant de la Photographie), and on the staircase of the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées. Her portraiture was unusual within exhibitions of modernist photography held in 1928–1929 in Brussels and Germany.[14]

Abbott's photograph of Janet Flanner in 1925

In 1925, Man Ray introduced her to Eugène Atget's photographs. She became interested in Atget's work,[15] and managed to persuade him to sit for a portrait in 1927.[16] He died shortly thereafter. She acquired the prints and negatives remaining in Eugène Atget's studio at his death in 1927.[17] While the government acquired much of Atget's archive — Atget had sold 2,621 negatives in 1920, and his friend and executor André Calmettes sold 2,000 more immediately after his death[18] — Abbott was able to buy the remainder in June, 1928, and quickly started work on its promotion. An early tangible result was the 1930 book Atget, photographe de Paris[19], in which she is described as photo editor. Due to a lack of funding, Abbott sold a one-half interest in the collection to Julien Levy for $1,000.[20] Abbott's work on Atget's behalf would continue until her sale of the archive to the Museum of Modern Art in 1968. In addition to her book The World of Atget (1964), she provided the photographs for A Vision of Paris (1963), published a portfolio, Twenty Photographs, and wrote essays.[21] Her sustained efforts helped Atget gain international recognition.

Changing New York

Bowery restaurant photograph for Changing New York, 1935.

In early 1929, Abbott visited New York City, ostensibly to find an American publisher for Atget's photographs. After New York when she was doing portrait photography most of the time, she moved on to documentary photography.[22] Upon seeing the city again, Abbott recognized its photographic potential. She went back to Paris, closed up her studio, and returned to New York in September. She was a central figure that created bridge with photographic hubs in New York City.[23] Her first photographs of the city were taken with a hand-held Kurt-Bentzin camera, but soon she acquired a Century Universal camera which produced 8 × 10 inch negatives.[24] Using this large format camera, Abbott photographed New York City with the diligence and attention to detail she had so admired in Eugène Atget. Atget died in 1927 and she bought all his work which contained over 5000 negatives and glass slides from him and brought it to New York in 1929.[23] Her work has provided a historical chronicle of many now-destroyed buildings and neighborhoods of Manhattan. Her work appeared in an exhibition "Changing New York" at the Museum Of City in 1937. This was a book made to show the transformation of New York City. She focused more on the physical part of the transformation rather than the mental part of it, such as the change of neighborhoods and the replacement of skyscrapers to low rise buildings.[25]

Abbott worked on her New York project independently for six years, unable to get financial support from organizations (such as the Museum of the City of New York), foundations (such as the Guggenheim Foundation), or individuals. She supported herself with commercial work and teaching at the New School of Social Research beginning in 1933.[26]

Manhattan Skyline I South Street and Jones Lane Manhattan by Berenice Abbott March 26 1936

In 1935, Abbott was hired by the Federal Art Project (FAP)[2] as a project supervisor for her "Changing New York" project. She continued to take the photographs of the city, but she had assistants to help her both in the field and in the office. This arrangement allowed Abbott to devote all her time to producing, printing, and exhibiting her photographs. By the time she resigned from the FAP in 1939, she had produced 305 photographs that were then deposited at the Museum of the City of New York.[24] Abbott's project was primarily a sociological study embedded within modernist aesthetic practices. She sought to create a broadly inclusive collection of photographs that together suggest a vital interaction between three aspects of urban life: the diverse people of the city; the places they live, work and play; and their daily activities. It was intended to empower people by making them realize that their environment was a consequence of their collective behavior (and vice versa). Moreover, she avoided the merely pretty in favor of what she described as "fantastic" contrasts between the old and the new, and chose her camera angles and lenses to create compositions that either stabilized a subject (if she approved of it), or destabilized it (if she scorned it).[27]

Huts and unemployed, West Houston and Mercer St., Manhattan (NYPL b13668355-482853)
Encampment of the unemployed, New York City, 1935

Abbott's ideas about New York were highly influenced by Lewis Mumford's historical writings from the early 1930s, which divided American history into a series of technological eras. Abbott, like Mumford, was particularly critical of America's "paleotechnic era", which, as he described it, emerged at end of the American Civil War, a development called by other historians the Second Industrial Revolution. Like Mumford, Abbott was hopeful that, through urban planning efforts (aided by her photographs), Americans would be able to wrest control of their cities from paleotechnic forces, and bring about what Mumford described as a more humane and human-scaled, "neotechnic era". Abbott's agreement with Mumford can be seen especially in the ways that she photographed buildings that had been constructed in the paleotechnic era—before the advent of urban planning. Most often, buildings from this era appear in Abbott's photographs in compositions that made them look downright menacing.[27]

In 1935, Abbott moved into a Greenwich Village loft with the art critic Elizabeth McCausland, with whom she lived until McCausland's death in 1965. McCausland was an ardent supporter of Abbott, writing several articles for the Springfield Daily Republican, as well as for Trend and New Masses (the latter under the pseudonym Elizabeth Noble). In addition, McCausland contributed the captions for the book of Abbott's photographs entitled Changing New York[28] which was published in 1939. In 1949, her photography book Greenwich Village Today and Yesterday was published by Harper & Brothers.[29]

Ralph Steiner wrote in PM that Abbott's work was "the greatest collection of photographs of New York City ever made."[30]

 Media related to Changing New York at Wikimedia Commons

Pike and Henry Streets, Manhattan (NYPL b13668355-482679)
Pike Street at Henry Street (1936)

Automat, 977 Eighth Avenue, Manhattan (NYPL b13668355-482752)
Automat in Manhattan (1936)

Penn Station, Interior, Manhattan (NYPL b13668355-482603)
Pennsylvania Station (1936)

Manhattan Bridge, From Bowery and Canal Street, Manhattan to Warren and Bridge Street, Brooklyn, Manhattan (NYPL b13668355-482814)
Detail of Manhattan Bridge (1936)

John Wanamakers's, Fourth Avenue and 9th Street, Manhattan (NYPL b13668355-482861)
Wanamaker's department store, Fourth Avenue and Ninth Street (1936)

Financial district rooftops III in Manhattan in 1938
Financial District rooftops (1938)

Seventh Avenue looking south from 35th Street, Manhattan (NYPL b13668355-482802)
Seventh Avenue, looking south from 35th Street (1935)

Flatiron building, 23rd Street and Fifth Avenue, Manhattan (NYPL b13668355-482724)
Flatiron Building (1938)

Doorway- Tredwell House, 29 East 4th Street, Manhattan (NYPL b13668355-1219143)
House doorway on East 4th Street, Manhattan (1937)

Hot Dog Stand, West St. and North Moore, Manhattan (NYPL b13668355-1219152)
Hot dog stand, North Moore Street, Manhattan (1936)

HARDWARE STORE 316-318 Bowery at Bleeker Street in New York City by Berenice Abbott in 1938
Hardware store on the Bowery in Manhattan (1938)

Radio Row-Berenice Abbott
Radio Row at Cortlandt Street (1936)

Beyond New York City
Berenice Abbott
Abbott, date unknown
In 1934 Henry-Russell Hitchcock asked Abbott to photograph two subjects: antebellum architecture and the architecture of H. H. Richardson. Two decades later, Abbott and McCausland traveled US 1 from Florida to Maine, and Abbott photographed the small towns and growing automobile-related architecture.[2] The project resulted in more than 2,500 negatives.

Shortly after the trip, Abbott underwent a lung operation. She was told she should move from New York City due to air pollution. She bought a rundown home in Blanchard, Maine, along the banks of the Piscataquis River for US$1,000. Later, she moved to nearby Monson and remained in Maine until her death in 1991. Most of her work is shown in the United States, but a couple photographs are shown in Europe.

Abbott's work in continued in Maine. Her last book was A Portrait of Maine (1968).

Approach to photography
Abbott was part of the straight photography movement, which stressed the importance of photographs being unmanipulated in both subject matter and developing processes.[31] She also disliked the work of pictorialists who had gained much popularity during a substantial span of her own career and, therefore, left her work without support from this particular school of photographers. Most of Abbott's work was influenced by her unhappy and lonely childhood. This gave her the strength and determination to follow her dreams.[32]

Throughout her career, Abbott's photography was very much a display of the rise in development of technology and society. Her works documented and praised the New York landscape. This was all guided by her belief that a modern-day invention such as the camera deserved to document the 20th century.[33]

Scientific work
Abbott was not only a photographer, but also founded the corporation, "House of Photography," from 1947 to 1959, to develop, promote and sell some of her inventions. She stayed with scientific pictures for twenty years until she died.[22] She has a famous quote saying "the world is made my science".[34] Her works were displayed the rise of development of technology when she created scientific photographs her scientific photos became a hit within two weeks of her releasing them. These included a distortion enlarging easel, which created unusual effects on images developed in a darkroom, and the telescopic lighting pole, known today by many studio photographers as an "autopole," to which lights can be attached at any level. Owing to poor marketing, the House of Photography quickly lost money, and with the deaths of two designers, the company closed.

Abbott's style of straight photography helped her make important contributions to scientific photography. From 1958 to 1960, she produced a series of photographs for a high-school physics textbook, developed by the Physical Science Study Committee project based at MIT to improve secondary school physics teaching. Her work included images of wave patterns in water and stroboscopic images of moving objects, such as Bouncing ball in diminishing arcs, which was featured on the cover of the textbook.[35] She contributed to the understanding of physical laws and properties of solids and liquids though her studies of light and motion.[36] Between 1958 and 1961 she made a series of photographs for Educational Services Inc. was circulated by them and the Smithsonian Institution as an exhibition titled Image of Physics.[36] In 2012, some of her work from this era was displayed at the MIT Museum in Cambridge, Massachusetts.[37]

Personal life
The film Berenice Abbott: A View of the 20th Century, which showed 200 of her black and white photographs, suggests that she was a "proud proto-feminist"; someone who was ahead of her time in feminist theory. Before the film was completed she questioned, "The world doesn't like independent women, why, I don't know, but I don't care." She identified publicly as a lesbian.[38]

She lived with her partner, art critic Elizabeth McCausland, for 30 years.[31]

Abbott's life and work are the subject of the 2017 novel The Realist: A Novel of Berenice Abbott, by Sarah Coleman.[39]

Notable photographs
Under the El at the Battery, 1932.[40]
New York at Night, 1932.[41]
Tempo of the City I, 1938.[42]
James Joyce, 1928.[43]
Jay Street #115, New York, c.1936.[44]
Automat, 977 Eighth Avenue, New York, 1936.[45]
Radio Row, Cortland Street, Manhattan, c. 1936.[46]
Marie Laurencin, Paris, c.1925.[47]
Triboro Barber School, New York, 1935.[48]
The Hands of Jean Cocteau, 1927.[49]
Fifth Avenue Coach Company, New York, 1932.[50]
Edward Hopper in His Studio, 1949.[51]
Fifth Avenue, Nos. 4,6,8, 1936.[52]
Flatiron Building, Broadway and Fifth Avenue, New York City, 1938.[53]
Father Duffy, Times Square, 1937.[54]
Gunsmith and Police Department Headquarters, 1937.[55]
Church of God, 1936.[56]
Eugene Atget, 1927.[57]
Books of photographs by Abbott:

1939 Changing New York. New York: Dutton, 1939. With text by Elizabeth McCausland.[2]
Reprint: New York in the Thirties, as Photographed by Berenice Abbott (New York: Dover, 1973).[2]
Catalog raisonné edition: augmented, annotated by Bonnie Yochelson, ed., Berenice Abbott: Changing New York (New York: New Press and the Museum of the City of New York, 1997) ISBN 1-56584-377-0 /.
1949 Greenwich Village: Yesterday and Today. New York: Harper, 1949. With text by Henry Wysham Lanier.
1968 A Portrait of Maine. New York: Macmillan, 1968. With text by Chenoweth Hall.
Other books by, or with major contributions from, Abbott:

1930 Atget, photographe de Paris. Paris: Henri Jonquières; New York: E. Weyhe, 1930. (As photograph editor.)[58]
1941 A Guide to Better Photography. New York: Crown, 1941[59] Revised edition: New Guide to Better Photography (New York: Crown, 1953)[60]
1948 The View Camera Made Simple. Chicago: Ziff-Davis, 1948[61]
1956 Twenty Photographs by Eugène Atget 1856–1927 (portfolio of silver prints by Abbott from original Atget negatives in her possession)[62]
1963 A Vision of Paris: The Photographs of Eugène Atget, the Words of Marcel Proust. New York: Macmillan, 1963. Edited by Arthur D. Trottenberg[63]
1964 The World of Atget. New York: Horizon, 1964.[64] (And later editions.)
1964 Magnet. Cleveland: World, 1964. With text by Evans G. Valens.[65]
1965 Motion. London: Longman Young, 1965. With text by Evans G. Valens[66]
1968 A Portrait of Maine. NY: Macmillan, 1968. With text by Chenoweth Hall[67]
1969 The Attractive Universe: Gravity and the Shape of Space. Cleveland: World, 1969. With text by Evans G. Valens[68]
2008 Berenice Abbott. Germany/New York: Steidl, 2008. 2v. Edited by Hank O'Neal and Ron Kurtz.[69] ISBN 3-86521-592-0
2010 Berenice Abbott". London: Thames & Hudson, 2010,[70] Introduction by Hank O'Neal
2012 Berenice Abbott: Documenting Science. Göttingen: Steidl, 2012.[71] Edited by Ron Kurtz, with introduction by Julia Van Haaften.
2014 The Unknown Berenice Abbott. Göttingen: Steidl, 2014. 5v. Edited by Ron Kurtz and Hank O'Neal[72]
2015 Berenice Abbott: Paris Portraits. Göttingen, Germany: Steidl; New York: Commerce Graphics, 2016. Edited by Hank O'Neal[73]
Anthologies of and/or about Abbott's works:

1970 Berenice Abbott: Photographs. New York: Horizon, 1970; reprinted, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990[74]
1982 O'Neal, Hank. Berenice Abbott: American Photographer. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982.[75] British title: Berenice Abbott: Sixty Years of Photography. London: Thames & Hudson, 1982[76]
1986 Berenice Abbott, fotografie / Berenice Abbott: Photographs. Venice: Ikona, 1986[77]
1989 Van Haaften, Julia, ed. Berenice Abbott, Photographer: A Modern Vision. New York: New York Public Library, 1989. [Winner, American Association of Museums' exhibition catalog design award][78] ISBN 0-87104-420-X
2009 Shimizu, Meredith Ann TeGrotenhuis. "Photography in Urban Disclosure: Berenice Abbott's Changing New York and the 1930s," Ph.D. dissertation, Northwestern University, 2009[79]
2012 Morel, Gaëlle. Berenice Abbott. Paris: Éditions Hazan, 2012[80]
2015 Berenice Abbott. Aperture Masters of Photography 9, by Julia Van Haaften. New York: Aperture, 1988; trilingual edition, 1997;[81] completely revised edition, with new photos and text, 2015.[82] [Chinese translation 2015[83]
Solo exhibitions
Weyhe Gallery, New York, NY, November 1930[84]
Photographs by Berenice Abbott at Julien Levy Gallery, New York, NY, September 26 – October 15, 1932
New York Photographs by Berenice Abbott at Museum of the City of New York, New York, NY, October 1934 – January 1935
New York Photographs by Berenice Abbott at Museum of Fine Arts, Springfield, MA, March 1935
New York Photographs by Berenice Abbott at Jerome Stavola Gallery, Hartford, CT, April 1935
New York Photographs by Berenice Abbott at Fine Arts Guild, Cambridge, MA, April 10–15, 1935
Changing New York, Washington Circuit, Federal Art Project, traveling exhibition, 1936
Changing New York at Museum of the City of New York, New York, NY, October 20, 1937 – January 3, 1938
Changing New York at Teachers College Library, New York, NY, November 1937
Solo exhibition at Hudson D. Walker Gallery, New York, NY, April 1938
Changing New York at New York State Museum, Albany, NY, July 1938
Changing New York at Federal Art Gallery, New York, NY, April 11–22, 1939
Solo exhibition at Architectural League, New York, NY, April 1939
Changing New York at Lawrenceville School, Lawrence Township, NJ, May 1939
Changing New York at Photo League Gallery, New York, NY, July 1939
Changing New York at New York State Employment Service, New York, NY, November–December 1939
Changing New York at Walton High School, New York, NY, December 1939
Photographs of New York by Berenice Abbott at The Cooper Union Library, New York, NY, November–December 1940
Berenice Abbott, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, December 1970 – February 1971
Berenice Abbott: The Red River Photographs at Hudson D. Walker Gallery at the Fine Arts Work Center, Provincetown, Massachusetts, August–September 1979[85]
Berenice Abbott: The 20s and the 30s, International Center of Photography, New York City, November 22, 1981 – January 10, 1982
Beauty of Physics at New York Academy of Sciences, New York, NY, January–April 1987[86]
Berenice Abbott, Photographer: A Modern Vision, The New York Public Library, New York NY, October 1989 – January 1990 (Traveled to Metropolitan Museum of Photography [Tokyo, Japan], Toledo [Ohio] Museum of Art, Corcoran Gallery of Art [Washington DC], and Portland [ME] Museum of Art, 1990–1992)
Documenting New York: Photographs by Berenice Abbott, Dallas Museum of Art, Dallas, Texas,1992
Berenice Abbott: Portraits, New York Views, and Science Photographs from the Permanent Collection, International Center of Photography, New York, NY, 1996
Berenice Abbott's Changing New York, National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington D.C.,1935–1939, 1998–99
Berenice Abbott: Vintage Photographs of New York from the 1930s, Lee Gallery, Winchester, MA, September 1999
Berenice Abbott: Science Photographs, The New York Public Library, New York NY, October 1999 – January 2000
Berenice Abbott: All About Abbott, Howard Greenberg Gallery, New York, NY, September–November 2006
Making Science Visible: The Photography of Berenice Abbott, The Fralin Museum of Art, Virginia, 2012
Berenice Abbott (1898–1991), Photographs, Jeu de Paume, Paris, France, February–April 2012
Berenice Abbott: Photography and Science: An Essential Unity, MIT Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts, May–December 2012
Berenice Abbott, Beetles & Huxley Gallery, London, England, October–November 2015
Berenice Abbott – Photographs, Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, Germany, January–March 2016
Abbott's work is held in the following permanent collections:

New York Public Library[87][88][89]
Museum of the City of New York[90]
The Jewish Museum of New York)[91]
Smithsonian American Art Museum[92]
The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.[93]
New Mexico Museum of Art, Santa Fe, NM[94]
Minneapolis Institute of Art[95]
Cleveland Museum of Art[96]
Walker Art Center[97]
^ Donald V. Brown, Christine Brown (comp.). Blanchard Cemetery, Abbot, Piscataquis, Maine, 1829 – 1990.
^ a b c d e f "Abbott, Berenice". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-Ak – Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2010. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
^ "Abbott, Berenice". Who Was Who in America, with World Notables, v. 10: 1989–1993. New Providence, NJ: Marquis Who's Who. 1993. p. 1. ISBN 0837902207.
^ Yochelson, pp. 9–10.
^ "Berenice Abbott". Biography. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
^ Sculpture, Ray, Hartmann: Julia Van Haaften, "Portraits", Berenice Abbott, Photographer: A Modern Vision (New York: New York Public Library, 1989), p. 11.
^ Marter, Joan M. (2011). The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art, Volume I. Oxford University Press. pp. 9–10.
^ Herring, Phillip (1995). Djuna: The Life and Work of Djuna Barnes. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-017842-2.
^ Benstock, Shari (1986). Women of the Left Bank: Paris, 1900–1940. Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-79040-6.
^ Yochelson, p. 10. Abbott quotation: Abbott, untitled text dated December 1975, Berenice Abbott, Photographer: A Modern Vision, p. 8.
^ Solo exhibition, studios: Van Haaften, "Portraits", Berenice Abbott, Photographer, p. 11.
^ Beach quotation: Van Haaften, "Portraits", Berenice Abbott, Photographer, p. 11.
^ "Image: 1293890.jpg, (1240 × 827 px)". Retrieved May 31, 2019.
^ Salon de l'Escalier, Belgian and German exhibitions: Van Haaften, "Portraits", Berenice Abbott, Photographer, p. 11.
^ "Berenice Abbott - Bio".
^ O'Neal, Hank (2010). Berenice Abbott. New York, N.Y.: Thames & Hudson. pp. [p. 3]. ISBN 9780500411001.
^ Lee., Morgan, Ann (2007). The Oxford dictionary of American art and artists. Oxford University Press. (1st ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199891504. OCLC 181102756.
^ Harris, David (2000) Eugène Atget: Unknown Paris. New York: New Press. ISBN 1-56584-854-3. pp. 13, 15.
^ Mac-Orlan, Pierre (1930). Atget: Photographe de Paris. New York, N. Y.: E. Weyhe.
^ O'Neal, Hank (2010). Berenice Abbott. New York, N. Y.: Thames & Hudson. pp. [p. 5]. ISBN 9780500411001.
^ Harris, David (2000) Eugène Atget: Unknown Paris. New York: New Press. ISBN 1-56584-854-3. pp. 8, 188.
^ a b "Berenice Abbott - Bio". Retrieved April 5, 2018.
^ a b "Berenice Abbott | MoMA". The Museum of Modern Art. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
^ a b Yochelson, introduction.
^ "Berenice Abbott - Bio". Retrieved April 4, 2018.
^ O'Neal, Hank and Berenice Abbott. Berenice Abbott: American Photographer. Introduction by John Canaday. New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1982.
^ a b Barr, Peter (1997) Becoming Documentary: Berenice Abbott's Photographs 1925–1939. Ph.D. dissertation. Boston University.
^ McCausland, Elizabeth (1939). Changing New York. New York, N.Y.: E. P. Dutton & Company, Inc.
^ Lanier, Henry Wysham; Abbott, Berenice; Harper & Brothers (1949). Greenwich Village, today & yesterday. OCLC 34989459.
^ Current Biography, 1942, 1.
^ a b Geyer, Andrea. "Revolt, They Said". Retrieved June 5, 2017.
^ "Berenice Abbott | International Photography Hall of Fame". International Photography Hall of Fame. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
^ Yochelson, Berenice Abbott.
^ O'Hagan, Sean (March 10, 2015). "Berenice Abbott: the photography trailblazer who had supersight". the Guardian. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
^ Crisis in US Science Education? Better Call in Avant-Garde Photographer Berenice Abbott Forbes
^ a b Gaze, Delia (1997). Dictionary of Women Artists, Volume I. Chicago, Illinois, USA: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. p. 167. ISBN 1-884964-21-4.
^ "MIT Museum: Exhibitions – Berenice Abbott: Photography and Science: An Essential Unity". Retrieved June 15, 2013.
^ "An American from Paris". Vanity Fair. February 2012. Retrieved November 2, 2017.
^ Zoffness, Courtney (March 20, 2018). "Art Lives: Sarah Coleman's "The Realist: A Novel of Berenice Abbott"". Los Angeles Review of Books. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
^ "Under the El at the Battery, Manhattan, Berenice Abbott; Publisher: Parasol Press Ltd., New York ^ Minneapolis Institute of Art". Retrieved April 8, 2019.
^ Morel, Gaelle; Miller, Sarah; Weissman, Terri (2012). Berenice Abbott. Editions Hazan. p. 55. ISBN 9780300182002.
^ "Brooklyn Museum". Retrieved April 8, 2019.
^ Morel, Gaelle; Miller, Sarah; Weissman, Terri (2012). Berenice Abbott. Editions Hazan. p. 29. ISBN 9780300182002.
^ "Berenice Abbott | American photographer". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
^ "Automat, 977 Eighth Avenue, Manhattan". Retrieved April 8, 2019.
^ "Brooklyn Museum". Retrieved April 8, 2019.
^ Morel, Gaelle; Miller, Sarah; Weissman, Terri. Berenice Abbott. Paris: Editions Hazan. p. 33. ISBN 9780300182002.
^ "Brooklyn Museum". Retrieved April 8, 2019.
^ Morel, Gaelle; Miller, Sarah; Weissman, Terri. Berenice Abbott. Paris: Editions Hazan. pp. 48–49. ISBN 9780300182002.
^ "Fifth Avenue Coach Company | RISD Museum". Retrieved April 8, 2019.
^ "Edward Hopper". International Center of Photography. February 29, 2016. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
^ Morel, Gaelle; Miller, Sarah; Weissman, Terri. Berenice Abbott. Paris: Editions Hazan. p. 98. ISBN 9780300182002.
^ Morel, Gaelle; Miller, Sarah; Weissman, Terri. Berenice Abbott. Paris: Editions Hazan. p. 101. ISBN 9780300182002.
^ "Berenice Abbott. Father Duffy, Times Square. April 14, 1937 | MoMA". The Museum of Modern Art. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
^ "Museum of the City of New York - Gunsmith and Police Department Headquarters". Retrieved April 8, 2019.
^ "Museum of the City of New York - Church of God". Retrieved April 8, 2019.
^ "Berenice Abbott. Eugene Atget. 1927 | MoMA". The Museum of Modern Art. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
^ Atget, Eugène; MacOrlan, Pierre; Abbott, Berenice; Jonquières, Henri; Henri Jonquières et cie; Marcel Seheur (Firm); Vigier et Brunissen (April 6, 2018). "Atget: photographe de Paris". Henri Jonquières, éditeur – via Open WorldCat.
^ Abbott, Berenice (April 6, 2018). "A guide to better photography". Crown Publishers – via Open WorldCat.
^ Abbott, Berenice (April 6, 2018). "New guide to better photography". Crown – via Open WorldCat.
^ Abbott, Berenice (April 6, 2018). "The view camera made simple". Ziff-Davis Pub. Co. – via Open WorldCat.
^ Atget, Eugène (April 6, 2018). "20 photographs". Abbott – via Open WorldCat.
^ Atget, Eugène; TROTTENBERG, Arthur D; Proust, Marcel (April 6, 1963). "A Vision of Paris. The photographs of Eugène Atget. The words of Marcel Proust (reprinted from "Remembrance of Things Past"). Edited, with an introduction, by Arthur D. Trottenberg, etc. [With portraits of Atget and Proust.]". New York; Lausanne printed – via Open WorldCat.
^ Atget, Eugène; Abbott, Berenice (April 6, 1964). "The world of Atget". Horizon Press – via Open WorldCat.
^ Valens, Evans G; Abbott, Berenice (April 6, 1964). "Magnet". World Pub. Co. – via Open WorldCat.
^ Abbott, Berenice (April 6, 1965). "Motion". World Publishing Co. – via Open WorldCat.
^ Abbott, Berenice; Hall, Chenoweth (April 6, 1968). "A portrait of Maine". MacMillan ; Collier-Macmillan – via Open WorldCat.
^ Valens, Evans G; Abbott, Berenice (April 6, 1969). "The attractive universe: gravity and the shape of space". World Pub. Co. – via Open WorldCat.
^ Abbott, Berenice; Abbott, Berenice (April 6, 2018). "Berenice Abbott". Steidl – via Open WorldCat.
^ Abbott, Berenice; O'Neal, Hank (April 6, 2018). "Berenice Abbott". Thames & Hudson – via Open WorldCat.
^ Abbott, Berenice; Kurtz, Ron; Van Haaften, Julia; Durant, John (April 6, 2018). "Documenting science". Steidl – via Open WorldCat.
^ Abbott, Berenice; Kurtz, Ron; O'Neal, Hank (April 6, 2018). "The unknown Abbott" – via Open WorldCat.
^ Abbott, Berenice; Kurtz, Ron; O'Neal, Hank (April 6, 2018). "Berenice Abbott Paris Portraits 1925-1930". Steidl / Commerce Graphics – via Open WorldCat.
^ Abbott, Berenice (April 6, 1990). "Berenice Abbott photographs". Smithsonian Institution Press – via Open WorldCat.
^ O'Neal, Hank; Abbott, Berenice (April 6, 1982). "Berenice Abbott, American photographer". McGraw-Hill – via Open WorldCat.
^ O'Neal, Hank; Abbott, Berenice; Canaday, John (April 6, 1982). "Berenice Abbott 60 years of photography". Thames and Hudson – via Open WorldCat.
^ Abbott, Berenice; Scuola grande di San Giovanni Evangelista (Venice, Italy); Ikona Gallery (April 6, 1986). "Berenice Abbott, fotografie: Scuola grande San Giovanni Evangelista, 26 giugno-27 luglio 1986". Ikona Gallery – via Open WorldCat.
^ Abbott, Berenice; Van Haaften, Julia (April 6, 1989). Berenice Abbott, photographer: a modern vision : a selection of photographs and essays. New York Public Library – via Open WorldCat.
^ Shimizu, Meredith Ann TeGrotenhuis; Abbott, Berenice; Northwestern University (Evanston, Ill.) (January 16, 2019). "Photography in urban discourse: Berenice Abbott's changing New York and the 1930s" – via Open WorldCat.
^ Morel, Gaëlle (April 6, 2018). "Berenice Abbott". Éditions Hazan – via Open WorldCat.
^ Abbott, Berenice; Van Haaften, Julia (April 6, 1997). "Berenice Abbott". Könemann – via Open WorldCat.
^ Van Haaften, Julia; Abbott, Berenice (April 6, 2018). "Berenice Abbott" – via Open WorldCat.
^ 哈弗腾; 唐小佳 (April 6, 2018). "光圈世界摄影大师 = Aperture masters of photography". 中国摄影出版社 – via Open WorldCat.
^ This list of exhibitions comes from Meredith TeGrotenhuis Shimizu's dissertation, "Photography and Urban Discourse: Berenice Abbott's Changing New York and the 1930s," 2008
^ Artforum, Summer 1979
^ Levin, Helen (Summer 1987). "The Beauty of Physics". Women Artists News. 12: 29 – via EBSCOhost.
^ Berenice Abbott papers at Manuscripts and Archives Division at the New York Public Library
^ Manuscripts and Archives Division, The New York Public Library (January 5, 2009). "Guide to the Berenice Abbott Papers" (PDF). Retrieved May 31, 2019.
^ "Berenice Abbott: Changing New York" New York Public Library
^ "Berenice Abbott" Museum of the City of New York
^ "Berenice Abbott" The Jewish Museum (New York)
^ "Berenice Abbott" Smithsonian American Art Museum
^ "Berenice Abbott (1898–1991)" The Phillips Collection
^ "Works – Berenice Abbott – People – Searchable Art Museum".
^ "Works by Berenice Abbott at the Minneapolis Museum of Art". Minneapolis Institute of Art. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
^ "Search the Collections". Cleveland Museum of Art.
^ Missing or empty |title= (help)
Cited sources
Bonnie Yochelson (1997). Berenice Abbott: Changing New York. New York: New Press. ISBN 1565845560.
Further reading
Bakewell, Joan; Rodger, Liam (2011). "Abbott, Berenice". Chambers Biographical Dictionary. 9th. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
Broe, Mary Lynn (1993). Women's Writing in Exile. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 9780807842515.
Butet-Roch, Laurence, "Berenice Abbott: Writing Her Own History," The New York Times, May 6, 2015
Documentary Film: Berenice Abbott: A View of the Twentieth Century (1992)
Hillstrom, L. C., & Hillstrom, K. (1999). Contemporary women artists. Detroit: St. James Press.
Kauffman, Bette (1999). "Abbott, Berenice". In Commire, Anne (ed.). Women in World History: A biographical encyclopedia. 1. Waterford, CT: Yorkin Publications, Gale Group. pp. 11–17. ISBN 0787640808.
Noyes Platt, Susan (2004). "Berenice Abbott". In Susan Ware (ed.). Notable American Women: A biographical dictionary, completing the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 2–3. ISBN 067401488X.
Stern, Keith (2009), "Abbott, Bernice", Queers in History, BenBella Books, Inc.; Dallas, Texas, ISBN 978-1-933771-87-8
Wedge, Eleanor F. (2000). "Abbott, Berenice (1898–1991), photographer". American National Biography.
Van Haaften, Julia (2018). Berenice Abbott: A Life in Photography, W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0393292789, ISBN 978-0393292787.
External links
 Media related to Berenice Abbott at Wikimedia Commons

Corinne, Tee A. "Berenice Abbott" (GLBTQ: An encyclopedia of gay, lesbian, transgender and queer culture.)
Teicher, Jessica E. "Inspired by Berenice Abbott"
"Berenice Abbott's Photographic Prints"(Commerce Graphics Ltd, Inc.)
Berenice Abbott (The Museum of Modern Art)
Get the Picture: Berenice Abbott (Minneapolis Institute of Art)
Berenice Abbott (Archives of Women Artists, Research and Exhibitions)
Architectural photographers
Early architectural photographers include Roger Fenton, Francis Frith (Middle East and Britain), Samuel Bourne (India) and Albert Levy (United States and Europe). They paved the way for the modern speciality of architectural photography. Later architectural photography had practitioners such as Ezra Stoller and Julius Shulman. Stoller worked mainly on the east coast of America, having graduated with a degree in architecture in the 1930s. Shulman, who was based on the West Coast, became an architectural photographer after some images that he had taken of one of Richard Neutra's houses in California made their way onto the architect's desk.

Elizabeth McCausland
Elizabeth McCausland (1899–1965) was an American art critic, historian and writer.

Eugène Atget
Eugène Atget (French: [adʒɛ]; 12 February 1857 – 4 August 1927) was a French flâneur and a pioneer of documentary photography, noted for his determination to document all of the architecture and street scenes of Paris before their disappearance to modernization. Most of his photographs were first published by Berenice Abbott after his death. Though he sold his work to artists and craftspeople, and became an inspiration for the surrealists, he did not live to see the wide acclaim his work would eventually receive.

Grace M. Mayer
Grace M. Mayer (November 26, 1901–December 21, 1996) was a curator of photography for the Museum of the City of New York and for the Museum of Modern Art.

Grapestake Gallery in San Francisco
The Grapestake Gallery was founded in San Francisco in 1974 by Thomas V. Meyer and his sister Ursula Gropper. The gallery was the first in San Francisco to exhibit photographs concurrently with painting and sculpture. The gallery helped to introduce and validate photography as a fine-art and collecting medium. The gallery opened with an Ansel Adams retrospective and later exhibited artists such as Harry Callahan, Joel Meyerowitz, Paul Strand, William Eggleston, Richard Misrach, Berenice Abbott, Imogen Cunningham, Judy Dater, Lewis Baltz, and Jerry Uelsmann. Richard Misrach had his first one-man show here. Grapestake Gallery closed in 1984, but Meyer and Gropper continued to promote fine-art photographs as independent dealers.

The world was not terribly much aware of fine art photography until Adams was discovered. When Adams, because of his great personality, his flamboyance, his humor, his generous nature, came on the scene and had some help from some promotional people, people started paying attention. Initially, there was virtually no market for photographs; nobody bought prints. When we opened our gallery, which was in 1974, we were selling a 16 x 20 inch Adams print for $500.

Gwen Le Gallienne
Gwen Le Gallienne (1874 - 1966) was an English painter and sculptor. She was the first woman allowed to sketch battlefield scenes by the British War Office.

Hank DeVito
Henry M. "Hank" DeVito is an American musician and photographer known primarily for his pedal steel guitar work and songwriting.

Hank O'Neal
Hank O’Neal (born June 5, 1940) is an American music producer, author and photographer.

Helen Gee (curator)
Helen Gee (1919–2004) was an American photography gallery owner, co-owner of the Limelight in New York City, New York from 1954 to 1961. It was New York City's first important post-war photography gallery, pioneering sales of photographs as art.

In the late 1970s, Gee worked as a photography curator, lecturer and writer.

Hofstra University Museum
Hofstra University Museum is the art museum of Hofstra University, located in Hempstead, New York in Long Island.

The Museum has two galleries on campus: the Emily Lowe Gallery and the David Filderman Gallery. The Museum and the Emily Lowe Gallery were established in 1963, and have been an active presence in the University for more than 50 years. The David Filderman Gallery was added to the museum in 1991. The Hofstra University Museum is accredited by the American Alliance of Museums (AAM).The Hofstra University Museum holds a collection of more than 5,000 art and ethnographic objects dating from 1,500 BCE to the contemporary period and representing six continents. The collections have grown primarily through gifts since the founding of Hofstra University in 1935, prior to the establishment of the Museum, and there have been many local contributors to the Museum’s collections. The Museum is noteworthy for African art and objects; Asian art is another area of strength with works dating from the seventh to the twentieth century.

The Hofstra University Museum owns an early Gauguin oil painting, Portrait of a Woman (1881–82), works by George Grosz, Conrad Felixmüller, Johan Barthold Jongkind, John Thomas Peele, Georges Rouault, Joseph Stella, Jane Peterson, and Alfred Maurer. Photographs in the collection include works of Berenice Abbott, Lucien Clergue, Danny Lyon, August Sander, Andy Warhol, and Edward Weston.

Julien Levy
Julien Levy (1906–1981) was an art dealer and owner of Julien Levy Gallery in New York City, important as a venue for Surrealists, avante-garde artists and American photographers in the 1930s and 1940s

Levy was born in New York. After studying museum administration at Harvard under Paul J. Sachs, Levy dropped out, traveled to Paris by boat, and befriended Man Ray, Marcel Duchamp, and Berenice Abbott, through whom he came into possession of a portion of Eugène Atget's personal archive. In Paris he also met his future wife, Joella Haweis, daughter of artist and writer Mina Loy. At some point in his life, Julien Levy remarried to surrealist artist Muriel Streeter.His connections with many other artists during this period of the 30's and 40's allowed Streeter to gain helpful insight with her own work during this time spent in and around Levy's New York gallery.

Back in New York, Levy worked briefly at the Weyhe Gallery before establishing his own New York gallery at 602 Madison Avenue in 1931. Concentrating at first on photography, he staged Man Ray's first major show, introduced Henri Cartier-Bresson to the U.S., and promoted many other European and American figures. On January 29, 1932 came the landmark multi-media Surrealist exhibition of the work of Pablo Picasso, Max Ernst, Joseph Cornell, Marcel Duchamp, and the introduction of Salvador Dalí's The Persistence of Memory (which Levy owned). He also championed the surrealist work of Leon Kelly.This exhibition marks the first in New York to display the works of members of the official surrealist group. In 1937 the gallery moved to 15 East 57th Street, where Levy mounted the first solo exhibition of the work of Frida Kahlo, November 1 to 15, 1938. From 1943 to 1949 the gallery was located at 42 East 57th Street. In 1945 Arshile Gorky had his first solo show there.

After closing the gallery, Levy taught at Sarah Lawrence College and State University of New York at Purchase. Levy's books include Memoir of an Art Gallery and Surrealism.

Leslie-Lohman Museum of Gay and Lesbian Art
The Leslie-Lohman Museum of Gay and Lesbian Art (LLM), operated by the Leslie-Lohman Gay Art Foundation, is a visual art museum in SoHo, Lower Manhattan, New York City. It mainly collects, preserves and exhibits visual arts created by LGBTQ artists or art about LGBTQ themes, issues, and people. The Museum offers exhibitions year-round in numerous locations and owns more than 22,000 objects, including, paintings, drawings, photography, prints and sculpture. It has been recognized as one of the oldest arts groups engaged in the collection and preservation of gay art. In May 2011, the Foundation was awarded Museum status by the New York State Board of Regents. The Museum is a member of the American Alliance of Museums and operates pursuant to their guidelines. As of 2019, the LLM was the only museum in the world dedicated to artwork documenting the LGBTQ experience.The Museum maintains a Permanent Collection into which more than 1,300 objects have been accessioned. The Permanent Collection contains works by a number of well-known gay artists such as Berenice Abbott, David Hockney, Ingo Swann, Catherine Opie, Andy Warhol, Tom of Finland, Delmas Howe, Jean Cocteau, David Wojnarowicz, Robert Mapplethorpe, George Platt Lynes, Horst, Duncan Grant, James Bidgood, Duane Michals, Charles Demuth, Don Bachardy, Attila Richard Lukacs, Jim French, Del LaGrace Volcano, Paul Thek, Peter Hujar, Arthur Tress and many others.

Nicholas Callaway
Nicholas Callaway is an app producer, book publisher, television producer, writer and photographer.Mr. Callaway is the founder and CEO of Callaway Arts & Entertainment, a cross-platform intellectual property creation studio that publishes high-quality illustrated books, mobile applications, computer-animated television series, and branded lifestyle products. The company's book publishing division, Callaway Editions, specializes in the design, production and publication of high-quality illustrated books on the arts, design, fashion and photography. Titles include: Alfred Stieglitz: Photographs & Writings, Georgia O'Keeffe ’s One Hundred Flowers, Irving Penn’s Passage, 'Madonna' ’s Sex, Diana: Portrait of A Princess, The Art of Make-Up by Kevyn Aucoin, A Nation Challenged: A Visual History of 9/11 and its Aftermath, a series of children's books by Madonna beginning with The English Roses, the Callaway Classics series of fairy tales, and OBAMA: The Historic Journey, co-published with The New York Times.In 2012, he co-founded and was the CEO, then Chairman of Happy Studio, an interactive digital brand creation company for the development of lifestyle apps for Apple's iOS devices, with headquarters on Union Square in New York City.The company's first product, Martha Stewart CraftStudio, was released in partnership with Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia on June 21, 2012 and was an Editor's Choice in Apple's App Store on launch date. In its first weekend it rose to No. 1 in the lifestyle category in the App Store, and to No. 2 overall. Bringing the physical paper-crafting world of scrapbooking, memory-keeping and photo-embellishment to life on the iPad, Martha Stewart CraftStudio allows crafters and non-crafters of all ages and skill levels to create and customize digital cards, invitations, thank-you notes, scrapbook pages, keepsakes, and more.

Its second brand Makr, a fast, easy and fun mobile-first design tool that empowers designers and makers everywhere, was acquired by Staples in April 2015.

In August 2010, with an investment from Kleiner, Perkins, Caufield, and Byers, Mr. Callaway founded Callaway Digital Arts (CDA), which publishes children’s applications for Apple’s iPad, iPhone, and iPod family of products. All of CDA’s apps have risen to No. 1 in their category in the App Store, including Miss Spider’s Tea Party, Miss Spider’s Bedtime Story, Sesame Street’s The Monster at the End of This Book and Thomas & Friends: Misty Island Rescue, and the early learning literacy and numeracy series, Endless Alphabet.In 1994, Mr. Callaway published Miss Spider's Tea Party by David Kirk, which has sold 5 million copies worldwide. Subsequently, Nicholas Callaway and David Kirk founded Callaway & Kirk Company LLC, which is dedicated exclusively to the creations of David Kirk. Other products include: more than seventy Miss Spider titles; the CGI Nova the Robot book series; the Sunny Patch line of children's lifestyle products featured at Target stores for 7 years and subsequently acquired by the educational toy company Melissa & Doug; and Miss Spider's Sunny Patch Friends, a 3-D computer-animated television series that has aired on Nick Jr. in the US and in many other countries around the world since its debut in 2005.

Nicholas Callaway graduated from Harvard University with a degree in Classics and Fine Arts, where he studied with Robert Fitzgerald and Emily Vermeule. He undertook early fine art photography and design studies at MIT with the founder of Aperture, Minor White, with designer Muriel Cooper, and with portrait photographer Wendy Snyder McNeil.

From 1977-1979 Mr, Callaway was the first director of Galerie Zabriskie in Paris, where he curated and mounted many landmark photography exhibitions, (many for the first time in Europe) including Harry Callahan, Lee Friedlander, Henri Cartier-Bresson, Eugène Atget, Berenice Abbott, Ansel Adams, William Klein, Man Ray and others. His final exhibition, French Avant Garde Photography Between the Wars, rediscovered for the first time such luminaries as Brassaï, Dora Maar, Claude Cahun, Eli Lotar, Germaine Krull, Roger Parry, Maurice Tabard, Jean Moral, Moï-Ver and others.

Mr. Callaway's photographs and writings have been published in Aperture (cover of Octave of Prayer, 1972 and Celebrations, 1975), Departures magazine and Vanity Fair.

Patchin Place
Patchin Place is a gated cul-de-sac located off of 10th Street between Greenwich Avenue and the Avenue of the Americas (Sixth Avenue) in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. Its ten 3-story brick row houses, said to have been originally built as housing for the Basque staff of the nearby Brevoort House hotel, have been home to several famous writers, including Theodore Dreiser, E. E. Cummings, John Cowper Powys and Djuna Barnes, making it a stop on Greenwich Village walking tours. Today it is a popular location for psychotherapists' offices.

Stevens House (Astoria, New York)
The Stevens House was located on Vernon Boulevard and 30th Road (Queens County) in the Astoria section of Queens in New York City, New York, United States.

The Camera Club of New York
Since 1884, The Camera Club of New York has been a forum to explore photography. Though the Club was created by well-to-do 'gentlemen' photography enthusiasts seeking a refuge from the mass popularization of the medium in the 1880s, it accepted its first woman as a member, Miss Elizabeth A. Slade, in 1887, only four years after its inception, and later came to accept new ideas and new approaches to the medium.

Over the years the Club helped launch revolutionary new approaches to photography and nurture many photographers who later became giants in the field. Alfred Stieglitz used the Club as a forum and venue to convince a still skeptical public that photography was an art worthy of comparison to painting. Later, as the medium matured, the Club was again the place where the new "straight photography" approach would emerge. Paul Strand, who joined the Camera Club at 17, was introduced to a camera at the Club that had a right-angle viewfinder, allowing one to photograph people unaware. Strand used this camera to produce some of his most memorable images on the streets of New York, including Blind Woman and Wall Street.

The Camera Club was also an important place to hear about new advances in photography. For instance, X-Ray photography was demonstrated there in 1898 and the Autochrome Lumière process, an early form of color photography, in 1909. In 1930 Willard D. Morgan first introduced the new Leica camera to Club members. Among the important lectures held at the Club were Aero Photography by Edward Steichen in 1921 and The Life and Work of Eugène Atget by Berenice Abbott in 1931. Later, Richard Avedon lectured on fashion Photography in 1949.

Today, the Camera Club continues to function as an important resource for photography. The club offers classes in basic camera and darkroom skills, which help nurture and create new pioneers of photography and workspaces for established and emerging photographers. Lectures and exhibits are an important part of the club's program. Since 1999 such important photographers as Eugene Richards, Nigel Parry, Duane Michals, Oliver Weber, Andres Serrano, Eddie Adams, and Henry Horenstein have exhibited and lectured at the club.The Camera Club of New York is located at 126 Baxter Street, New York, NY 10013.

The Phillips Collection
The Phillips Collection is an art museum founded by Duncan Phillips and Marjorie Acker Phillips in 1921 as the Phillips Memorial Gallery located in the Dupont Circle neighborhood of Washington, D.C. Phillips was the grandson of James H. Laughlin, a banker and co-founder of the Jones and Laughlin Steel Company.

Among the artists represented in the collection are Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Gustave Courbet, El Greco, Vincent van Gogh, Henri Matisse, Claude Monet, Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, Pierre Bonnard, Paul Klee, Arthur Dove, Winslow Homer, James McNeill Whistler, Jacob Lawrence, Augustus Vincent Tack, Georgia O'Keeffe, Karel Appel, Joan Miro, Mark Rothko and Berenice Abbott.

Todd Webb
Todd Webb (September 5, 1905 – April 15, 2000) was an American photographer notable for documenting everyday life and architecture in cities such as New York City, Paris as well as from the American west. His photography has been compared with Harry Callahan, Berenice Abbott, Walker Evans, and the French photographer Eugène Atget. He traveled extensively during his long life and had important friendships with artists such as Georgia O'Keeffe, Ansel Adams and Harry Callahan. He photographed famous people including Dorothea Lange. His life was like his photos in the sense of being seemingly simple, straightforward, but revealing complexity and depth upon a closer examination. Capturing history, his pictures often transcend the boundary between photography and artistic expression.

University of Maine Museum of Art
University of Maine Museum of Art (UMMA) is an art museum in downtown Bangor, Maine. It is part of the University of Maine, which is located in nearby Orono, Maine. The University of Maine Art Collection was established in 1946, under the leadership of Vincent Hartgen. As the initial faculty member of the Department of Art and curator of the art collection, Hartgen's goal was to provide the people of Maine with significant opportunities to experience and learn about the visual arts and their diverse histories and cultural meanings.

In the early 1980s, the University Art Collection became the University of Maine Museum of Art. Through the cooperative effort and vision of the City of Bangor and the University of Maine, the museum relocated in December 2002 to downtown Bangor where it has taken on a new role as a regional fine arts center. The facility was designed by the Boston firm, Ann Beha Architects, and now occupies the first floor of Norumbega Hall, a historic downtown building that formerly housed a department store. The Bangor facility, while allowing the museum to showcase a greater proportion of its collection, also enhances the arts scene of the region's largest city.

The museum remains the only institution owned by the citizens of the State of Maine to house a permanent fine arts collection – one which has grown to a stature that makes it a nucleus in the state for historic and contemporary art. Consisting of more than 3500 original works of art, the collection is particularly strong in American mid-20th century works on paper. Contemporary highlights of the collection include works by David Hockney, Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, Edward Hopper, Pablo Picasso, and Edward Burtynsky. Additionally, the museum's permanent collection includes work by artists associated with Maine such as Berenice Abbott, Marsden Hartley, Winslow Homer, John Marin, Carl Sprinchorn, and Andrew Wyeth. In addition to making the University's collection more accessible to the public, the downtown location enables the museum to expand its educational programs beyond the confines of the Orono campus. In 2011, the museum was said to have one of the finest gallery spaces in the state.The museum hosts an annual calendar of exhibitions featuring contemporary artists and ideas. In 2011, the museum hosted its first national show, Photo National 2011. The exhibit featured 76 photographs by 34 photographers, including 11 from Maine. Among the museum's educational offerings are art camps for children lectures, special events, family programming, and educational classes and workshops for adults.University of Maine Museum of Art is part of the Maine Art Museum Trail, a circuit of eight art museums designed to highlight Maine's art history.In 2014, the museum renewed its lease to remain in the downtown location for an additional 17 years.

Ohio Women's Hall of Fame
Florence Allen Helen Chatfield Black Frances Bolton Elizabeth Boyer Harriet Bracken Martha Kinney Cooper Gertrude Donahey Jane Edna Hunter Consolata Kline Virginia Kunkle Margaret Mahoney Helen Grace McClelland Agnes Merritt Rose Papier Lottie Randolph Ella P. Stewart Marigene Valiquette Ann B. Walker Stella Walsh Marion Wells
Mary Jobe Akeley Mary Ann Bickerdyke Beatrice Cleveland Charity Edna Earley Eleanor Jammal Bernice Kochan Emily Leedy Ruth Lyons Jerrie Mock Emma Phaler Rachel Redinger Bobbie Sterne Ethel Swanbeck Clara Weisenborn Marjorie Whiteman
Grace Berlin Erma Bombeck Patricia M. Byrne Ruth Crawford Louisa Fast Dorothy Fuldheim Lillian Gish Esther Greisheimer Edith Keller Tella Kitchen Blanche Krupansky Hattie Larlham Mary Louise Nemeth Annie Oakley Doris Weber
Mildred Bayer Tina Bischoff Lovin Dorothy Cornelius Doris Day Phyllis Diller Eusebia Hunkins Andre Norton Jean Starr Untermeyer Harriet Taylor Upton Nancy Wilson
A. Margaret Boyd Ann Eriksson Bernice Foley Zelma Watson George Grace Goulder Izant Toni Morrison Phyllis Sewell Jayne Spain Helen Zelkowitz
Harriet J. Anderson Ione Biggs Eula Bingham Mary O. Boyle Mariwyn Heath Josephine Irwin Barbara Janis Minnie Player Gloria Steinem Freda Winning Mary E. Miller Young
Sally Cooper Sarah E. Harris Cindy Noble Hauserman Marcy Kaptur Karen Nussbaum Mary Rose Oakar Catherine Pinkerton Willa Player Judith Resnik Helen Hooven Santmyer Marian Trimble Joyce Wollenberg
Lois Anna Barr Cook Mercedes Cotner Zell Draz Barbara Easterling Nikki Giovanni Aurora Gonzalez Mary Lazarus Barbara Mandel Norma Marcere Helen Mulholland Lauretta Schimmoler Marge Schott Mary Jen Steinbrenner
Margaret Andrew Kathleen Barber Fay Biles Elizabeth Blackwell Marie Clarke Eva Mae Crosby Ruby Dee Cynthia Drennan Hooker Glendinning Louise Herring Katherine LeVeque Ruth Ratner Miller Amelia Nava Arline Webb Pratt Anastasia Ann Przelomski Virginia Purdy Selma Lois Walker Julia Walsh Faye Wattleton Mary Ellen Withrow
Anna Biggins Patricia Clonch Norma Craden Jewel Freeman Graham Cathy Guisewite Rebecca D. Jackson Carol Heiss Jenkins Carol Kane Bea Larsen Alice Raful Lev Linda Rocker Sogg Eleanor Smeal Carolyn Utz Anita Smith Ward
Jeanette Grasselli Brown Maxine Carnahan Tracy Chapman Betsy Mix Cowles Ann Gazelle Michelle Graves Florence Harshman June Hutt Geraldine Jensen Carolyn Mahoney Linda Myers Jennie Porter Diane Poulton Renee Powell Charlene Spretnak Charlene Ventura
Marilyn Gaston Dorothy Jackson Luella Talmadge Jackson Janet Kalven Rosabeth Kanter Maggie Kuhn Joan Lamson Maya Lin Anne Variano Macko Alicia Mott Ludel Sauvageot Fanchon bat-Lillian Shur Phebe Temperance Sutliff Grayce Williams
Berenice Abbott Earladeen Badger Hallie Brown JoAnn Davidson Raquel Diaz-Sprague Rita Dove Mary Ignatia Gavin Sara Harper Donna Hawk June Holley Martha C. Moore Darlene Owens Helen H. Peterson Martha Pituch Yvonne Pointer Virginia Ruehlmann Josephine Schwarz Suzanne Timken Nancy Vertrone Bieniek Stella Marie Zannoni
Mary of the Annunciation Beaumont Antoinette Eaton Rubie McCullough Nancy Oakley Harriet Parker Susan Porter Helen Steiner Rice Alice Schille Louella Thompson
Mildred Benson Amelia Bingham Virginia Coffey Viola Famiano Colombi Ivy Gunter Virginia Hamilton Lucy Webb Hayes Joy Alice Hintz Geraldine Macelwane Anne O'Hare McCormick Rena Olshansky Edna Pincham Maxine Plummer Jean Reilly Pauline Riel
Christine M. Cook Claudia Coulton Ellen Walker Craig-Jones Nanette Ferrall Jill Harms Griesse Georgia Griffith Florence Melton Lucille Nussdorfer Jane Reece Emma Ann Reynolds Carol Scott Paula Spence Deanna Tribe Lillian Wald
Sandra Beckwith Daeida Hartell Wilcox Beveridge Patricia Ann Blackmon Mary Bowermaster Christine Brennan Joy Garrison Cauffman Bunny Clark Grace Drake Naomi Evans Frances Dana Gage Jane Kirkham Sylvia Lewis Tami Longaberger Donna Moon Gratia Murphy Alice Robie Resnick Muriel Siebert
Carol Cartwright Elizabeth Evans Rae Natalie Goodall Elizabeth Hauser Bernadine Healy Carol Kelly Fannie Lewis Betty Montgomery Hope Taft
Carol Ball Marilyn Byers Jean Murrell Capers Martha Dorsey Joan Heidelberg Clarice Herbert Beatrice Lampkin Jacquelyn Mayer Townsend Ann O'Rourke Beryl Rothschild Thekla Shackelford
Marianne Boggs Campbell Carole Garrison Nancy Hollister Stephanie J. Jones Bettye Ruth Kay Barbara Ross-Lee Audrey Mackiewicz Kathy Palasics Margaret Diane Quinn Henrietta Seiberling Mary Emily Taylor Virginia Varga Jacqueline Woods Nancy Lusk Zimpher
MaryJo Behrensmeyer Alvina Costilla Sarah Deal Electra Doren Daisy Flowers Annie Glenn Ann Hamilton Carole Hoover Cheryl Han Horn Carol Latham Nancy Linenkugel Marie Barrett Marsh Marjorie Parham Mary Regula Lee Lenore Rubin Harriet Beecher Stowe Jerry Sue Thornton Janet Voinovich
Paige Ashbaugh Maude Charles Collins Faye Dambrot Margarita de Leon Patricia Louise Fletcher Jean Patrice Harrington Shirley Hoffman Dorothy Kazel Farah Majidzadeh Ada Martin Lorle Porter Lanna Samaniego Yvonne Taylor Margaret Wong Betty Zane
Rebecca Boreczky Frances Jennings Casement Ruth L. Davis Lucille Ford Susan F. Gray Kathleen Harrison Adella Prentiss Hughes Janet E. Jackson Dottie Kammie Kamenshek Maxine Levin Irene Long Martha MacDonell Mary Andrew Matesich Elizabeth Powell Deborah Pryce Maria Sexton Farah Walters Georgeta Blebea Washington
Judy Barker Frances Seiberling Buchholzer Joan Brown Campbell Nancy Frankenberg Zell Hart-Deming Elsie Helsel Katie T. Horstman Jennie Hwang Cathy Monroe Lewis Viola Startzman Robertson Stefanie Spielman Kathryn D. Sullivan
Sheila Bailey Jeraldyne Kilborn Blunden Shannon Carter Luceille Fleming Olga Gonzalez-Sanabria Elsie Janis Lois Lenski Ellen Mosley-Thompson Cathy Nelson Evlyn Gray Scott Yvonne Williams
Rogers Margaret Brugler Julia Chatfield Lucille Hastings Lillie Howard Mary Ann Jorgenson Joyce Mahaney Rozella Schlotfeldt Katherine May Smith Florence Wang
Dorothy Baunach Carrie Black Caro Bosca Yvette McGee Brown Loann Crane Joan Durgin Carol Gibbs Billie Johnson Jih Lei Elizabeth Magee Kasturi Rajadhyaksha Julie Salamon Michele Wheatly
Gail Collins Pamela B. Davis Kim de Groh Beverly J. Gray Sharon Howard Carol Kuhre Virginia Manning Helen Moss Judith Rycus Mary Adelaide Sandusky Glenna Watson Bernett Williams Celia Williamson
Owens Alvarene Tenenbaum Gayle Channing Dorothy McAlpin Maguire Chapman Barbara Fergus Merle Grace Kearns Rebecca J. Lee Nina McClelland Lana Moresky Martha Potter Otto Elizabeth Ruppert Rita Singh
Cheryl A. Boyce Elizabeth H. Flick Frances Harper Brenda J. Hollis Mary C. Juhas Kleia R. Luckner Valerie J. Lyons Linda S. Noelker Carrie Vonderhaar

dinsdag 1 oktober 2019

Views & Reviews The Bread Book Kenneth Josephson Conceptualism Photography

by Josephson, Kenneth
Austin, TX: University Of Texas Press, 2016. First Edition. First Printing.. Softcover. As New/No Dust Jacket, As Issued.. Austin, TX: University Of Texas Press, 2016. Softcover. As New/None, As Issued. First Edition/First Printing. 20 pages. Collection of photographs, presented as an Artist Book. One of the most important Conceptual art photography books of our time, in a New Edition. Limited Edition of 250 signed copies. Published as a softcover original only that will not be reissued once all of the copies are sold. An austerely elegant production by Kenneth Josephson and Only Photography Press: Regular-sized volume format. Pictorial softcovers with titles on the cover, as issued. Photographs by Kenneth Josephson. There is no text. Printed on pristine-white, thick coated stock paper in Berlin, Germany to the highest standards. The photographer himself has said that the production quality is superior to the original edition in the way that it captures the tonal nuances which, of course, is the whole point of the book. Without DJ, as issued. Re-presents, in a Limited Edition format, Kenneth Josephson's "The Bread Book". Pioneering Conceptual art photography at its Minimalist best, long before Minimalism itself became a full-fledged and dominant movement. "A deceptively simple object - photographs of the fronts and backs of ten slices of bread with no accompanying text - this Artist Book raises questions about the nature of photography and its ability to transform an object into an idea or concept while creating yet another object: The book itself. The result of this act of transformation is that the original loaf no longer functions as a loaf of bread, but as a self-contained book that considers the ideas of sequence and illusion" (Publisher's blurb). "A monument of the photobook. It's the book itself that is the work of art, not the individual images. Like most of the best Conceptual photography, the idea is devastatingly simple on the surface yet infinitely complex when you look beyond the surface" (Gerry Badger). Originally published in an edition of 1800 copies, "The Bread Book" has been out-of-print for a very long time. Here it is, in a production that Kenneth Josephson himself regards as definitive and superior to its original realization. An absolute "must-have" title for Kenneth Josephson collectors. This title is a late-modern art photography classic.  One of the greatest artist/photographers of our time. 

The Bread Book by Kenneth Josephson (1973) is a small booklet of twenty pages printed in offset. Starting with the front cover, which shows, besides the title, the cap of a loaf of bread. Each sheet progressively shows the front and back of all ten slices of a small loaf of bread. The back cover therefore shows the other end of the loaf.

Josephson created this book in direct response to the photo story sequences that were being created and published by Duane Michals at about that time.

“If you look at a Duane Michals book you see it and you get it, and you never look at it again,” Josephson said. “With The Bread Book there is nothing to get. You can even look at it backwards.”

What started life as a fairly cheap and affordable book now retails for quite some dough.

Kenneth Josephson is one of the foremost conceptual photographers in America. Since the early 1960s, when institutions such as MoMA privileged photography in the documentary mode, Josephson has championed the photograph as an object “made,” not taken, by an artist pursuing an idea. Using innovative techniques such as placing images within images and including his own body in photographs, Josephson has created an outstanding body of work that is startlingly contemporary and full of ideas that stimulate the digital generation—ideas about the nature of seeing, of “reality,” and of human aspirations, and about what it means to be a human observing the world.
The Light of Coincidence is the definitive, career-spanning retrospective of Kenneth Josephson’s work and one of the few volumes ever published on this major artist. Josephson has worked in series over long periods of time, and this book beautifully reproduces representative selections from every series, including Josephson’s best-known Images within Images. Lynne Warren places Josephson’s art in historical context, from his early studies with Aaron Siskind and Harry Callahan at the Institute of Design and with Minor White at the Rochester Institute of Technology, to his mature work, which shares affinities with that of conceptual artists such as Cindy Sherman and Ed Ruscha, to his shaping influence on generations of students at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, where he taught for over thirty-five years. Preeminent photo historian Gerry Badger’s foreword confirms Josephson’s stature as an artist who has explored “in a thoroughly creative and complex, yet accessible, way, the perhaps narrow but infinitely deep gap between actuality and image.”
“Kenneth Josephson’s photographs have life because they are great pictures. That is why they are not only satisfying but have resonated in our consciousness for so long. . . . He has produced one of the foremost bodies of work that explores how photographic images operate and their ultimate purpose.” -Gerry Badger, from the foreword to The Light of Coincidence
“A monument of the conceptual photobook. . . . It’s the book itself that is the work of art, not the individual images. . . . Like most of the best conceptual photography, the idea is devastatingly simple on the surface, yet infinitely complex when you look beyond the surface.” —Gerry Badger on The Bread Book, author of The Photobook: A History
“The book shows the tremendous range of image-making styles, from street photography to collage, poignant family photos, references to photo history, and cheeky nudes. It’s easy to imagine they’ll continue to resonate deep into the future as well. –Famous in Chicago? What a Concept, New York Times Lens Blog article on Kenneth Josephson
Read a Wall St. Journal review of his most recent exhibition here
“Ken makes photographs through conceptualism using expedient formal strategies calling attention self-consciously to the medium’s limits. It is conceptual and accessible because it is so clearly formal while playful wit and irony prevails. His images of humor and clarity that simultaneously invite pondering speak to generations in their freshness. And curators have long taken note and continue to speak to his influence in contrast to the relative under-representation of his rich and varied oeuvre.” — Marilyn Zimmerwoman, photographer/activist/educator
Kenneth Josephson was born in Detroit in 1932. He began his formal photography training at the Rochester Institute of Technology, earning an Associate Degree before being drafted into the army in 1953, where he spent several months in Germany doing photolithography for aerial reconnaissance. He returned to R.I.T. immediately after to earn his B.F.A. studying under the new program head, Minor White. Josephson started his graduate studies at the Institute of Design in 1958 studying under Harry Callahan and Aaron Siskind. In 1960 Josephson became an instructor at The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, where he taught until 1997. Josephson has participated in numerous exhibitions, and his works are in major museums around the world, including the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris; the Center for Creative Photography; the George Eastman House; the Metropolitan Museum of Art; the Museum of Modern Art; the Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography; and the Whitney Museum of American Art, as well as countless private collections.

Visual Criticism in Photography

Jno Cook, Nit & Wit Magazine, November 1981

Photography is somewhat different from the other visual arts. Much of what has passed as photo-criticism in the last one hundred and forty years, and there has been very little of it, has been written by photographers. This has been so because, historically, photography represented more of a guild community, and therefore fell upon its own membership to formulate a critique. There were no objective outsiders who took any interest in the field, and few of the insiders have been articulate. Additionally, that photo community had little awareness of its own history, a condition that prevailed into the sixties, and photography's status as art was not firmly established until the seventies.

But at that point in time we not only see a rise in the volume of literature dealing with photography, but for the first time we start to see what might be understood as a criticism that is expressed in the same medium. It is photographic work done by photographers which deals with the work of other photographers. But there is little of it, and it is often inconclusive. The sparsity of work is in some ways difficult to understand, for when it comes to turning out work the photographic process has much greater possibilities for less of an investment than, for example, painting. More likely it stems from the discomfort many photographers must feel in attempting critical work. Because it is mostly absent or goes unrecognized, there is no clear legitimacy for photographic criticism done photographically, for work that forms a reaction, a condensation, or an understanding of the work of others. I am not speaking here of simply the art-historical allusion, references to the medium, or of conceptual explorations. And I'm not speaking of ifluences or derivative work. I'm speaking of genuine reactions, direct responses. Let me give two examples.

As a first example, consider the work done by a number of photographers which has had a clear reference to the work of the nineteenth century photographer Eadweard Muybridge, who in 1887 published some 800 motion studies under the title, Animal Locomotion. Muybridge had demonstrated in 1877 what a galloping horse looked like, and specifically that all four feet were off the ground at some point. But the studies of 1887 went far beyond his initial effort. Animal Locomotion showed the gaits of elephants and camels and other animals borrowed from the Philadelphia zoo, as well as humans, most often in the nude, in every type of activity. The colotype prints of these activities generally showed a dozen or more consecutive frames, and often simultaneous views were shown from the front, the side, and obliquely. Bound into books, the studies represented eleven volumes.

In 1974, Jim Snitzer spoofed the Muybridge efforts with a series of prints titled "Animal Crackers." Within the consecutive frames of each print animal crackers were being transformed, perhaps by being eaten. At about the same time, Marion Faller and Hollis Frampton produced a set of 16 prints under the label "Vegetable Locomotion," which did similar things with vegetables. Significant of the date -- 1974, 1975 -- is the fact that this seems to be the earliest time at which this type of activity is allowed while simultaneously the requirement is made of the viewer that it be taken seriously. It needed to be taken seriously, to the extent that that was possible, because all three of these persons were students in an art curriculum at the time. Snitzer was at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, and Faller and Frampton were at the Visual Studies Workshop in Rochester.

But what kind of activity is this? How are we supposed to react to this work? Despite the fact that both of these series are the products of working artists, there seems to be little or nothing we can clearly label as art. The work does not deal with personal concerns or larger social issues. None of it calls up an emotional response, nor is any of it important as an appeal to its inherent sensual quality. To understand how this work functions one has to recognize the use of humor, parody, the historical allusion, and the exuberant display of imagination as intellectual activities, and realize that when the allusion becomes the primary reference of the work we are simply dealing with criticism. The legitimacy of an intellectual basis for work was, of course, firmly established in the other visual arts, but in photography it was tolerated much less. Photographers have always had problems in not dealing with real subject matter. This may explain the hesitancy with which these ventures are undertaken, and the fact that they fall short of their goal. For, although both of these studies can be understood as a reflective critique of Muybridge's Animal Locomotion, both miss the central reality of Muybridge's work: its in credible compulsiveness and exhaustiveness. It is this, after all, that makes Muybridge stand out as an exemplary figure in the history of photography. Those 800 studies were produced over the span of three or four years, and who can tell how much additional work was never published. A dozen prints, therefore, do not adequately address Muybridge's work or personality in scope or essence. A portfolio of a hundred prints would have been more to the point. Neither Snitzer nor Faller and Frapton, for example, blow up their subjects with a stick of dynamite as Muybridge did with a turkey, or use deformed vegetables as subjects.

Another example of criticism within the media is found in the work of Kenneth Josephson. Josephson teaches photography at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, and much of his work over the years has dealt with an analytical exploration of photography in itself. Among his works, for example, is a continuing series dealing exclusively with allusion to the history of photography. Josephson is facile and at ease witht his type of work, and it is therefore no surprise that he was able to shift to a piece of work that was decidedly more critical than conceptual; the 1973 production of The Bread Book. The Bread Book is a small booklet of ten leaves, that is, twenty pages if the covers are counted, printed in offset. At first glance it might seem like yet another conceptual statement. Starting with the front cover which shows, besides the title, the cap of a loaf of bread, each sheet progressively shows the front and back of all ten slices of a small loaf of bread. The back cover therefore shows the other end of the loaf. It is easily dismissable unless some thought is given to what is being presented here, and how that is being accomplished. And it gains considerable significance if one knows that Josephson created this in direct response to the photo story sequences that were being created and published by Duane Michals at about that time.

"If you look at a Duane Michals book you see it and you get it, and you never look at it again," Josephson said. "With The Bread Book there is nothing to get. You can even look at it backwards." Josephson is notorious for the understatement. He doess not make mention, for example, what must be obvious after a moment's reflection, that the bread book incorporates the physical aspects of a loaf of bread. It not only records the bread in detai1, but the form of the book is the plan and layout for the reconstruction of the loaf. When you stand the book on end it becomes a sliced loaf of bread again. And like the building plans for a house, it has been condensed to a thickness of a mere eighth of an inch. Similar to other books of instructions with similar deadpan titles which appeared in the seventies -- books The Dome Book, The Massage Book -- Josephson's book seems to hold the same promise of completeness and no-nonsense authenticity. And it is. It's all there, the whole loaf. The slices are even reproduced full-size.

The Bread Book also comments on art and the making of art, and especially on the lack of taste or intelligence that goes into the preferences of the buying public. Duane Michal's work was selling. By 1974 Michals would have an exhibit at LIGHT gallery in NewYork. But for Josephson's bread book, the possibility of monetary rewards seemed limited, for the book sold for only two dollars and fifty cents. But that was the point of it. For Josephson, who normally dealt in single photographic peints, matted and signed, there was a gesture in the inexpensiveness of The Bread Booh just as there was in its availability. "I have quite a few left," Josephson remarked recently.

I have to admit that I had to struggle with The Bread Book when I first saw it. Its most significant aspect at first was the clever way in which the paradigm of subject and object had been retained. The book not only duplicated a loaf of bread, but any loaf of bread now became a model for The Bread Book. That is the sort of thing that makes Siskind's photograph of a discarded glove work in the same way that a photograph of a shoe woulddn't work -- for gloves, or hands, exist in the vertical, but a shoe on the wall would have been an absurdity.

What next became obvious is that I was here dealing with a book, and would tend to look at it with those presumptions which we nornally have about books. We immediately assume a narrative character, a progression from front to back, and a content that starts and completes itself within the covers -- not, as with this book, on the Covers.

We even assume that serial images are located in time. The Bread Book satisfied none of these requirements. Instructive as this might be in enlightening our ignorance, just as we might delight in those parallels that are being shown between books and bread, all of this make much more sense when seen in the context of Josephson's purpose. Compare The Bread Book now with the books of Duane Michals which play with space and physical transformations, but which are always located in time, always meant to be read from left to right, always assume a narrative unfolding.

As I mentioned above, efforts such as these seldom occur in photography, and when they happen they often fall short. Direct critical work is often reduced to a display of humour, and does not involve the requisite activities of amassing data, of analytic comparisons, or even of expressing a complete response to the work of others. The two critiques of Muybridge are obviously incomplete. Josephson's book, too, is inconclusive in that he never revealed his target publicly. But then, Josephson never deals in specific subject matter. For him the concepts incorporated in the book are more important than a specific reference to Duane Michals would have been. Josephson was wise enough to choose a small loaf -- there are only ten slices -- not only apropos for a small book, but perhaps also for a single roll of film, and at any rate just enough to establish it as a toss-off. His target, Josephson might have suggested, didn't require any more comment than that.

Photos: Matthew Carson

Kenneth Josephson was born on July 1, 1932 in Detroit, Michigan and he is one of the early and influential practitioners of Conceptual photography. Layering his images within other images and playing with the act of picture-making, investigating the nature of truth and illusion in the photographic medium. He is one of the great photographers of the latter part of the 20th century. Information. Happy birthday, Kenneth!

Matthew Carsonis a Librarian and Archivist at the International Center of Photography [ICP] in New York. Information. He is one of the committee members of the Contemporary Artists’ Book Conference at the New York Art Book Fair [NYABF] and is also a co-founder of the 10×10 Photobook organization. In 2013 he was a curator of the book component of the ICP Triennial: A Different Kind of Order. Information. Information. As a photography enthusiast and bibliomaniac he is the editor and a writer for the ICP library blog, Monsters & Madonnas.

The Book of Bread 1903 Parr Badger I Owen Simmons Photography

The Book of Bread 1903 Parr Badger I Owen Simmons Photography

The Book of Bread. Text by Owen Simmons. Uncredited photographer. Maclaren & Sons, London, 1903. 360 pp. Large quarto. First edition. Hardbound with debossed title. 27 black-and-white and 11 color reproductions (8 tipped-in) plus 2 pasted-in silver gelatin prints. 

Of all the books mentioned in Parr and Badger's The Photobook: A History, vol. I, one of the titles most often mentioned in reviews was this idiosyncratic (mainly because it is so doggedly literal) look at the world of bread. As they explain, even though the book was published in 1903, it is related to nineteenth century attempts to catalogue and classify the "things of the world." "Here, at the beginning of the twentieth century," they write, "one of the humblest, yet most essential of objects is catalogued as precisely, rigorously and objectively as any work by a 1980s Conceptual artist."